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Edition guide: In recent times, Web3.0 has attracted a lot of attention. What exactly is Web3.0? Why focus on it? In this article, the authors share their concerns about Web3.0, the development of Web1.0~Web3.0, and the relationship between Web3.0 and the meta-cosm.


“The initial Internet, where people can almost simply type on a computer, and then have a camera-enabled cell phone, becomes increasingly visible. As the speed of the network expands, video becomes the main conduit for the content of our experience.


Our Internet experience has evolved from desktop to mobile devices, from text to pictures to videos today, and what is the next generation of the Internet?"

上面这段话,是Facebook(现meta)CEO在2021年的connect大会演讲的部分内容,这次大会首次提出了元宇宙(metaverse)的概念 ,通过VR设备,用户可以沉浸在一个完全虚拟的互联网世界,带来智能手机或电脑无法比拟的临场感。

The above is part of the Facebook (now Meta) CEO speech at the 2021 Connect Congress, which first introduced the concept of metaverse, which allows users to immerse themselves in a completely virtual Internet world with a sense of immeasurability of smartphones or computers.


No matter how convenient the Internet is for our lives, the Internet today is still built on a central platform built by big Internet companies.


There is an information silo between the platforms, and all free or fee-paying services capture large amounts of user data in intangible terms.


The decentralized Internet model brought about by Web3 can both break down the information barrier created by centralization and eliminate all passive data leaks.


In the foreword, we outlined the forms that the Internet has evolved into today, and Dr. Bernards-Lee, while working at the European Centre for Nuclear Research, wrote the world's first web browser, Web1.0, the dawning of the Internet.


In just over a decade, the various portals that we are familiar with have been created, and the websites Yahoos, Googles, new waves in the country, Internet access, fox searches, etc., have become nodes to be bypassed by the information available online at that time.


To date, most of them still exist on the Internet, but they are living fossils. Who says that the Internet has no memory?


At the same time, people are excited about the amount of information that can be seen on the Internet.


Unlike newspapers and periodicals that traditionally have to be subscribed to, you can easily get the information you want by clicking on the mouse and skipping several pages.


time is not occupied by the Internet, and people simply receive information passively.


More and more people are pouring into the Internet, more and more people are receiving equal amounts of information, and people are starting to talk online about the news, books, music #8230; #8230; #8230;


Some of these smart brains are thinking: why can't information that you see online be discussed directly online? The sky, the bean pets, the cat pings, the bar was born.


As a result, users use the platform to make their own ideas available to everyone.


Everyone can see, respond, seem to meet all the needs we can imagine, and everyone thinks it's the end of the Internet.


In 2007, Apple officially launched the first generation of iPhone.


Later stories can no longer be more familiar with the exponential rise in Internet penetration between androids and iOS in a world where mobile Internet is divided equally.


Users are no longer content with boring graphic communication on the Internet alone, and high-flow load applications, such as video and live broadcasts, are beginning to take over people's minds.


Everyone's filming and uploading videos, everybody's live, everybody's got 15 minutes of cash...


In the midst of prosperity, there is a growing realization that ownership of what we create seems to have been taken away by some of the scientific giants that provide the platform through a clause declaration.


In most cases, we only have access to our own data, while the Platform has ownership of our data.


The interface and exchange of information prior to the cross-platform is also progressively separated from the information barrier, the search engine is unable to capture the information from the various platforms, and an information island is gradually formed between the platforms.


All the data are on the platform's servers, so we often see news about the data leaks as a result of the attack on the server. Is there any technology or way to avoid the risk of such centralization?


Broadly speaking, web1.0 is a user's access to information from the Internet, and web 2.0 users can read and publish information on the Internet, but have no ownership of such information.


For creators, content created by users on the web 2.0 Internet is subject to multiple limitations, such as the platform's two-way clause, the 30 per cent platform tax on repeated news, the malign reduction of arithmetical rights, etc., which stifles the creator's desire for innovation.


On 1 November 2008, a nine-page paper, Bitcoin: an electronic cash system for point-to-points, was published by a person named Ben-Hear-in-Centre.


In his paper, he proposed a decentralised electronic record-keeping system, whereby records of transactions could be stored on all nodes with special encryption, without having to be recorded via a central server.


, with the in-depth study of Bitcoin, found that this idea of decentralisation and block chain encryption could be used not only in the financial sphere, but also in the Internet.


Users can interact directly without the need for a centralized server, while at the same time ensuring through encryption protocols that there is no risk of disclosure of their data.


For usb3 to be understood, the concepts of decentralisation, block chains and token must be understood.


Web3 follows the concept of block chain decentralisation, whereby users create and consume content through tokens, while at the same time being able to acquire ownership of the content of their own creation.


Web3 is based on a point-to-point computer network infrastructure and does not need to be distributed through a centralized giant server.


In the traditional web 2.0, we download and open an app, often the first operation is to register and agree to some user privacy agreements that do not even look at them.


The personal data that we generate on the app is gradually being collected, and they may be trafficked to other manufacturers without our knowledge, and our data is not ours.


Web3 technologies based on block chain encryption, coupled with completely decentralised storage, allow users to have full ownership of their data, and users can determine whether the data is open to use by other agencies.


The data are stored in the form of block chains in all nodes and there will be no loss or theft of server kernel data.


For most people of non-computer origin, the concept of block chains is very difficult to understand.


To give an example of a transfer: if I transfer $100 from a payment app to a, then the payment ap needs to check if my balance is $100 and how much remains of my account after the transfer.


These transactions require payment applications to record them, and all transactions require a trading centre.


In the world of block chains, there is no concept of a trading centre.


Anyone can record it, but why waste their resources to record things that have nothing to do with themselves?


The answer is an incentive for bookkeeping, where all people receive a fee, which is a very low figure compared to the centralised transaction fee.


In web3, the deal was made conditional on the possession of a virtual wallet.


Unlike traditional bank accounts, virtual wallets do not have centralized transaction records but are recorded through numerous nodes.


Virtual wallets are divided into three categories:

  1. 在交易所开通的账户钱包,和传统的账户类似,都需要一个中心化的机构运行;
  2. 第二类是冷钱包,需要一个特定的硬件装置才可以运行, 类似网银的u盾;
  3. 第三类就是一个单纯的app(metamask),只需要通过密钥就可以进行交易。


If I transfer $100 to a (and, of course, the currency has to be exchanged for a virtual currency of equal value) and the broadcast tells everyone on the network that the records of all transactions made by everyone on the network will be broadcast.


Assuming that a thousand transaction records are collected over a period of time, the 1,000 transaction records are sealed into one block, which is one of the blocks in the chain.


This envelope is linked to a block of the previous transaction record, so as to extend it into a chain of blocks.


Who is responsible for sealing the record of the transaction? In the logic of the block chain, only one person can pack it, and when it is done, there will be an incentive to decide who is ultimately entitled to seal it.


In short, a mathematical question needs to be calculated by computer.


Whoever calculates the final answer first, then the right to encapsulate belongs to whom, and the process of calculating it is the mining that you understand.


To give an example of a game: homogenous tokens can be understood as coupons for us to charge, non-homogenous tokens can be understood as instruments such as skin, equipment, etc. for us.


The token only exists on the block chain, that is, all the Internet assets of the user are present on the Internet in the form of a block chain.

NFT的全称是Non Fungible Token:非同质化代币,也是区块链的一种形式。

NFT is fully known as Non Fungible Token: a non-homogenous token and a form of block chain.


Although it was true that there had been a storm on the Internet last year, most people had the first impression of an ugly ape.


As early as 2017, two developers developed the world's first NFT project, CryptoPunks, which placed more than 10,000 randomly generated pixel heads on the Etheria block chain and pioneered the introduction of encrypted virtual assets into the area of encrypted currency.

由此开始,OpenSea、Nifty Gateway等交易市场开始迅速崛起,艺术家、明星纷纷通过各种平台发布自己的NFT,NFT逐渐从小众化的领域慢慢出现在大众视野。

Starting with the rapid rise of trading markets such as OpenSea and Nifty Gateway, artists and stars have published their own NFTs through various platforms, and NFTs have gradually emerged from a less popular field of view.


How can we simply understand what is NFT? We continue to state with one example: I have a basketball for Xiaoa and, normally, I think there should be no threshold for Xiaoa to trade for basketball, because the value is exactly the same.


But what if Littlea's basketball was used in Corby's last game? That basketball is a unique object in itself, and Littlea's basketball can be considered an NFT.


It looks exactly the same, but it's worth a lot different.


We turn this logic to digital art, which seems to be immeasurable and of no value even if bought.


However, since the only transaction record was uploaded into the block chain totoken, the record could not be changed before the next transaction.


Even if all people can download and copy, the sole ownership remains the person who buys the collection.


The current NFT can be broadly divided into two different categories:

  1. 数字艺术品:就是大众最熟知的包括无聊猿、彩虹猫之类的图片或视频形式的NFT;
  2. 游戏/虚拟资产:游戏资产强调用途,如区块链游戏中的虚拟道具,购买后可以实际运用到游戏当中。当然在虚拟世界中,土地也是可以和现实世界一样拍卖的,如林俊杰在Decentrland花费13万美元购买了三个地块。


Besides, in the web3 world, NFT is not just a digital collection.


There is now more extensive application space: to give an inappropriate example, imagine that in web2, all Internet manufacturers use user privacy data as smart recommended algorithms.


If we cast our privacy data into NFT and sell it to Internet manufacturers to refine their recommended algorithms.


Every time they use your data, you receive a certain amount of money instead of using your data now free of charge and without any concern.


In any event, the immutable and unique nature of NFTs will bring in endless imaginations of different industries in the future, rather than being confined to art and even to the Internet.


For creators, the traditional trade in works is a form of buy-out, and once the deal is completed, the work will never produce any subsequent benefit for creators.


But NFT uses smart contracts that allow creators to receive royalties from all the transactions in the work, which make it possible for full-time NFT creators.


In addition to the technology that draws on the block chain, smart contracts are an indispensable technical concept for NFT and Web3.


NFT publishers publish their NFT works through a trading platform that generates an intelligent contract based on the block chain, distinct from the traditional form of contract trading.


Smart contracts broadcast their content to all nodes, and all nodes record contracts.


The content of the contract is therefore not subject to manipulation and will be carried out irreversibly once the terms of the contract have been fulfilled.


Imagine, as a designer, casting their designs into NFT and selling them to users by means of smart contracts, a sublet to users.


As the initial seller, each transaction allows itself to receive the corresponding copyright proceeds.


In the real world, this is almost impossible.


The buyer may breach the contract through a series of private transactions, even if there is provision for copyright proceeds for each transaction.


But through the logic of smart contracts, a brand-new model of creators, free of worries, will grow stronger.

DAO(Decentralized Autonomous Organization)转换为中文就是去中心化的自治组织。

The conversion of the DAO (Decisionralized Autonomous Organization) to Chinese is a decentralised self-governing organization.


The basic features of DAO are operated through smart contracts, which are carried out irreversibly when conditions are met.


Traditional business organizations are top-down, with high-level orders to determine strategic direction.


DAOs determine direction through their NFT holders or token holders, thus significantly reducing the distance between decision-making and consumption, and between decision-making and implementation and organizational efficiency through the votes of token holders.


By definition, the app is built on a decentralised block chain, which runs through a predefined logic of an intelligent contract.


This is one of the differences with the traditional app, which requires a centralized server, where all connections to the user are interrupted in the event of an accident or shutdown of the server.


Due to its extensive distribution on the block chain, dapp has virtually no deactivated status.


Due to the use of the same technology as encrypted currency, data are stored on block chains and encrypted, and there is no means of tampering with and forgery of data.


Moreover, users do not need to repeat registration when switching between apps and completely break the information islands between traditional apps.


In general, web3 gives users real ownership of their data through block chain technology.


User data on the Internet are no longer a free nutrient for Internet giant algorithms, and the resulting technology has created an inexhaustible imagination for the future.


However, as the general public is still in a state of ignorance of the Web3, decentralised networks are still slow to move forward.


Since each transaction requires packing by miners, and unlike traditional apps, users may need to learn software such as additional operating steps and virtual wallets, which would also be a very large threshold.

Metaverse的概念出自美国作家Neal Stephenson 1992年出版的科幻小说《雪崩》。

The concept of Metaverse is derived from the science fiction novel Avalanche, published by the American writer Neal Stephenson in 1992.


The book depicts a world that is completely virtual with only VR glasses.


Although it is a completely virtual digital space, the immersion experience is sufficient to confuse reality, where people can normally socialize, work or even trade.

2021年初,游戏公司roblox以400亿美元的估值上市,在其招股书中频繁的提到metaverse这个概念, 又一次将元宇宙带入人们的视野。

At the beginning of 2021, the game company Roblox was on the market with a $40 billion valuation, and the concept of metaverse was frequently mentioned in its offer book, bringing the meta-cosmos into people's eyes again.

到了21年的10月,Facebook在connect大会中宣布改名meta,同时宣布all in元宇宙。

By October of 21 years, Facebook announced a change of name for Meta at the connect congress, while declaring the all in dollar universe.


As a giant in the trillion-dollar market, he totally detonated the concept of the meta-cosmos.


In the vision of the Facebook dollar universe, most life and work scenes in reality can be transferred to the virtual world.


But must this virtual meta-cosmos world be a world that needs a giant company to control, as the movie number one plays at home describes?


If, in this virtual world, all your assets can be wiped out overnight, no one wants their virtual world to be controlled by others.


So the meta-cosm must be a decentralised virtual world, while the decentralised block chain technology and encryption technology brought by Web3 are naturally suitable infrastructure for the meta-cosm.


The encryption and decentralisation technology brought about by web3 no longer allows users to register different accounts on different platforms as they do today.


Rather, creating a generic digital identity on the Internet, using the technical encryption distribution of block chains to store their data in their own hands, can clearly define user ownership of the information.


For assets in the virtual world, in the Web 2.0 generation, virtual assets are just code in the server, with users having access to the assets themselves without ownership.


The block chain distribution storage of web3.0 allows data to be stored in all nodes, meaning that data cannot be altered without permission.


Together with the NFT concept, the issue of the sole ownership of virtual assets has been ensured, allowing the virtual economy of the Woncosmos to run completely.


Unfortunately, at the Connect conference, Facebook showed us a meta-cosm scene that is far too far away without VR head displays and just one normal pair of glasses to open up our daily work software, game apps, learning, and so on.


Instead, web3 showed us a glimpse of the future of the Internet, and its concept of decentralisation would remove issues such as web 2.0 data rights, Internet monopolies, and so on.


so the day that web3.0 is truly universal will also be the day that the imaginary meta-cosmos arrives.


The Yuan cosmos will certainly change from concept to everyday life in the future, yet we still face a series of problems.

区块链技术带来的web3.0作为元宇宙底层的基础设施,虽然解决了中心化的部分弊端,但是诸如算力消耗过大的问题、51%算力攻击的问题,包括2016年被黑客攻击的The DAO事件,都证明了web3的技术距离成熟依然有很长的路要走。

Web3.0 from block chain technology, as the infrastructure at the bottom of the meta-cosm, while addressing some of the ills of centralization, issues such as overcalculation, 51 per cent arithmetic attacks, including The DAO, which was hacked into in 2016, demonstrate that web3 still has a long way to go before it matures.


Reference Links








Some pictures are from the Internet. Please contact the author for deletion if there is a violation.


This paper is directed by Hao Xiaoqian http://www.woshipm.com/u/917803


本文由@汉堡怪兽 原创发布于人人都是产品经理。未经许可,禁止转载。

This paper was originally published by @Hamburg Beast and everyone is a product manager.


The map is from Pexel and is based on the CC0 agreement.


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